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Dupilumab Tied to Fewer Exacerbations in COPD With Type 2 Inflammation

Increase seen in prebronchodilator forced expiratory volume in one second with dupilumab versus placebo at weeks 12, 52

By Elana Gotkine HealthDay Reporter

TUESDAY, May 21, 2024 (HealthDay News) — Dupilumab is associated with fewer exacerbations for patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) with type 2 inflammation, according to a study published online May 20 in the New England Journal of Medicine to coincide with the American Thoracic Society 2024 International Conference, held from May 17 to 22 in San Diego.

Surya P. Bhatt, M.D., M.S.P.H., from the University of Alabama in Birmingham, and colleagues conducted a double-blind trial involving patients with COPD who had a blood eosinophil count of 300 cells/µL or higher. The participants received subcutaneous dupilumab (300 mg) or placebo every two weeks (470 and 465 patients, respectively).

Overall, 721 of the participants were included in the analysis at week 52. The researchers found that the annualized rate of moderate or severe exacerbations was 0.86 and 1.30 with dupilumab and placebo (rate ratio, 0.66). From baseline to week 12, there was an increase seen in the prebronchodilator forced expiratory volume in one second with dupilumab versus placebo (least-squares mean change, 139 versus 57 mL), with a significant least-squares mean difference of 82 and 62 mL at week 12 and week 52, respectively. The change in St. George’s Respiratory Questionnaire scores from baseline to week 52 did not differ significantly between the groups. A similar incidence of adverse events was seen in the two groups.

“Our trial confirmed that add-on dupilumab treatment reduced the rate of exacerbations and increased lung function in patients with COPD with type 2 inflammation as indicated by elevated blood eosinophil counts,” the authors write.

The study was funded by Sanofi and Regeneron, the manufacturers of dupilumab.

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